Probabilistic characterisation of deep brain stimulation in patients with tardive syndromes


Tardive syndromes (TS) are characterised by hyperkinetic motor signs that commonly develop after using antidopaminergics. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) has been successful in treating refractory TS, although a minority of patients have minimal response.1 The location of active contacts or volume of tissue activated (VTA) by DBS or stimulation of adjacent tracts may explain some of this outcome variability.

Group-level neuroimaging analyses can demonstrate optimal stimulation areas, tracts and functional networks associated with maximal clinical benefits during DBS. To our knowledge, this approach has not yet been applied to TS. The objectives of this study were to (1) retrospectively examine clinical outcomes from seven patients with TS GPi-DBS and (2) use neuroimaging analysis to investigate brain circuits possibly related to efficacy.


This retrospective study followed the Helsinki Declaration.

Clinical treatment

Seven patients (five men and two women) with medication-refractory TS underwent bilateral DBS…

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