High-Frequency Oscillations in Epilepsy: What Have We Learned and What Needs to be Addressed

For the past 2 decades, high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) have been enthusiastically studied by the epilepsy community. Emerging evidence shows that HFOs harbor great promise to delineate epileptogenic brain areas and possibly predict the likelihood of seizures. Investigations into HFOs in clinical epilepsy have advanced from small retrospective studies relying on visual identification and correlation analysis to larger prospective assessments using automatic detection and prediction strategies. Although most studies have yielded promising results, some have revealed significant obstacles to clinical application of HFOs, thus raising debate about the reliability and practicality of HFOs as clinical biomarkers. In this review, we give an overview of the current state of HFO research and pinpoint the conceptual and methodological issues that have hampered HFO translation. We highlight recent insights gained from long-term data, high-density recordings, and multicenter collaborations and discuss the open questions that need to be addressed in future research.

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