To establish molecular diagnosis for a family with a complicated form of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with intellectual disability, cognitive decline, psychosis, peripheral neuropathy, upward gaze palsy, and thin corpus callosum (TCC).
Physical examinations, laboratory tests, structural neuroimaging studies, and exome sequence analysis were carried out.
The 3 patients exhibited intellectual disability and progressive intellectual decline accompanied by psychiatric symptoms. Gait difficulty with spasticity and pyramidal weakness appeared at the ages of 20s–30s. Brain MRI revealed TCC with atrophic changes in the frontotemporal lobes, caudate nuclei, and cerebellum. Exome sequence analysis revealed a novel homozygous c.2654C>A (p. Ala885Asp) variant in the ATP13A2, a gene responsible for a complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG78), Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. The predominant clinical presentations of the patients include progressive intellectual disability and gait difficulty with spasticity and pyramidal weakness, consistent with the diagnosis of SPG78. Of note, prominent psychiatric symptoms and extrapyramidal signs including rigidity, dystonia, and involuntary movements preceded the spastic paraparesis.
Our study further broadens the clinical spectrum associated with ATP13A2 mutations.