Wallerian degeneration as a mimic of recurrence of myelitis

A middle-aged woman with idiopathic longitudinally extensive myelitis underwent repeat MR scan of cervical spine at 5-month follow-up, which showed new non-enhancing T2 hyperintensities, initially reported as myelitis recurrence. However, the hyperintensities involved both lateral corticospinal tracts caudal to the initial lesion and both dorsal columns rostral to the initial lesion and were therefore compatible with Wallerian degeneration. This radiological mimic should be considered in the differential of recurrence of myelitis.

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