Acute Axonal Motor Neuropathy With Completely Reversible Conduction Failure—Is It Really Axonal?

imageWe present the case of a 24-year-old man with a 3-day history of limb weakness and flaccid tetraparesis, hyporreflexia, and gait difficulties (Hughes grade 3) in the examination. Electromyography at presentation revealed severe amplitude reduction in distal compound muscle action potentials of several nerves without features of demyelination, fulfilling electrodiagnostic criteria for acute axonal motor neuropathy. The patient was treated with immunoglobulin and recovered completely 21 days after symptom onset. Electromyography at this timepoint showed normalization of compound muscle action potentials without increased temporal dispersion. The electroclinical recovery profile in this patient is consistent with reversible conduction failure in distal nerve segments in detriment of axonal degeneration. Thus, it is an “axonal motor neuropathy” where axonopathy is unlikely, giving strength to the concept of “nodopathies/paranodopathies.”

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