Treatment-Refractory Myasthenia Gravis

imageMyasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common disorder of neuromuscular transmission and is a prototypical autoimmune disorder. Most patients with MG are successfully treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, corticosteroids, and/or steroid sparing agents such as azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil. There is a small subset of patients, however, with treatment-refractory disease. In these cases, medications such as rituximab, high-dose cyclophosphamide, and eculizumab may be used. Thymectomy (in some cases repeat thymectomy) is another option in selected patients. Studies evaluating these and other forms of therapy in treatment-refractory MG are reviewed.

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