What is in the Literature focuses on peripheral neuropathies with new and practical information related to the diagnosis, treatment, and management. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines are available for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) but not all clinicians follow them resulting in erroneous diagnoses and prolonged treatment. Secondary axonal loss in CIDP causes increased connective tissue in muscle. Antibodies to proteins at the node of Ranvier are found in a small percentage of patients with CIDP. The differential diagnosis for CIDP-like neuropathies includes amyloid neuropathy and POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, skin changes) and amyloidosis. Upper limits for cerebral spinal fluid protein are 0.45 g/L and cell count <10/µL, but both may be too low. Hyperactive reflexes may occur in Guillain–Barré syndrome and should not exclude the diagnosis. In severely affected Guillain–Barré syndrome patients, a second dose of intravenous immune globulin within 4 weeks of onset is not likely to be effective.