Predictors of mortality for acute vertebrobasilar artery occlusion receiving endovascular treatment

Objectives

Acute vertebrobasilar artery occlusion (VBAO) is a devastating type of stroke with a high mortality rate. This study aimed to investigate the predictors of 3-month and 1-year mortality in VBAO patients receiving endovascular treatment (EVT).

Materials & Methods

Consecutive acute VBAO patients undergoing EVT between January 2014 and December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed in a prospectively maintained database. Multivariate logistical regression models were used to explore the potential predictors of mortality at 3 months and 1 year, respectively. The discrimination of the final model was assessed with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.

Results

A total of 100 patients were enrolled in this study (mean age 62 years; 77.0% male). After excluding patients lost to follow-up, the overall mortality rate was 34.3% (34/99) at 3 months and 45.4% (44/97) at 1 year. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at 24 h (Odds ratio [OR], 0.676; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.540–0.846; p = .001) and mechanical ventilation (MV) (OR, 7.356; 95% CI, 2.200–24.593; p = .001) were predictors of 3-month mortality after adjusting for potential confounders in multivariable analysis. Furthermore, the GCS score at 24 h (OR, 0.714; 95% CI, 0.590–0.864; p = .001), intracranial hemorrhage (OR, 7.330; 95% CI, 1.772–30.318; p = .006), and MV (OR, 5.804; 95% CI, 1.841–18.294; p = .003) were independently associated with mortality at 1 year. Sensitivity analyses showed similar results.

Conclusion

The 24-h GCS score and MV were common predictors of 3-month and 1-year mortality, and ICH was an additional predictor of 1-year mortality.

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