To evaluate incidence, risk factors, and in-hospital outcomes associated with hyponatremia in patients hospitalized for Guillain–Barré Syndrome (GBS).
We identified adult patients with GBS in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002–2011). Univariate and multivariable analyses were used.
Among 54,778 patients hospitalized for GBS, the incidence of hyponatremia was 11.8% (compared with 4.0% in non-GBS patients) and increased from 6.9% in 2002 to 13.5% in 2011 (P < 0.0001). Risk factors associated with hyponatremia in multivariable analysis included advanced age, deficiency anemia, alcohol abuse, hypertension, and intravenous immunoglobulin (all P < 0.0001). Hyponatremia was associated with prolonged length of stay (16.07 vs. 10.41, days), increased costs (54,001 vs. 34,125, $USD), and mortality (20.5% vs. 11.6%) (all P < 0.0001). In multivariable analysis, hyponatremia was independently associated with adverse discharge disposition (odds ratio: 2.07, 95% confidence interval, 1.91–2.25, P < 0.0001).
Hyponatremia is prevalent in GBS and is detrimental to patient-centered outcomes and health care costs. Sodium levels should be carefully monitored in high-risk patients.