Impact of Disease-Modifying Treatments of Multiple Sclerosis on Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies: An Observational Study

Objective

To compare the humoral response after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving different disease-modifying treatments (DMTs).

Methods

Patients with MS with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and available anti–SARS-CoV-2 serology were included. The primary endpoint was the anti–SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) index. The multivariate analysis was adjusted for COVID-19 severity, SARS-CoV-2 PCR result, and the time between COVID-19 onset and the serology.

Results

We included 61 patients with available IgG index. The IgG index was lower in patients with fingolimod or anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies compared with patients without treatment (p < 0.01), patients with interferon β-1a or glatiramer (p < 0.01), and patients with another DMT (p = 0.01). The IgG index was correlated with the time between COVID-19 onset and serology (r = –0.296 [–0.510; –0.0477], p = 0.02).

Conclusions

Humoral response after COVID-19 was lower in patients with MS with fingolimod or anti-CD20 mAb. These patients could therefore be at risk of recurrent infection and could benefit from anti–SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The humoral response after vaccination and the delay before vaccination need to be evaluated.

Classification of Evidence

This study provides Class IV evidence that patients treated with fingolimod or anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies for MS have a lower humoral response after COVID-19 compared with patients without DMTs or with another DMTs.

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