Localisation in focal epilepsy: a practical guide

The semiology of epileptic seizures reflects activation, or dysfunction, of areas of brain (often termed the symptomatogenic zone) as a seizure begins and evolves. Specific semiologies in focal epilepsies provide an insight into the location of the seizure onset zone, which is particularly important for presurgical epilepsy assessment. The correct diagnosis of paroxysmal events also depends on the clinician being familiar with the spectrum of semiologies. Here, we summarise the current literature on localisation in focal epilepsies using illustrative cases and discussing possible pitfalls in localisation.

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