Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL)

A 44-year-old Caucasian man presented with seizures and cognitive impairment. He had marked retinal drusen, and MR brain scan showed features of cerebral small vessel disease; he was diagnosed with a leukoencephalopathy of uncertain cause. He died at the age of 46 years and postmortem brain examination showed widespread small vessel changes described as a vasculopathy of unknown cause. Seven years postmortem, whole-genome sequencing identified a homozygous nonsense HTRA1 mutation (p.Arg302Ter), giving a retrospective diagnosis of cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy.

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