Autoinflammatory syndromes result from a defective innate immune system. They are characterised by unexplained fever and systemic inflammation involving the skin, muscle, joints, serosa and eyes, along with elevated acute phase reactants. Autoinflammatory syndromes are increasingly recognised as a cause of neurological disease with a diverse range of manifestations. Corticosteroids, colchicine and targeted therapies are effective if started early, and hence the importance of recognising these syndromes. Here, we review the neurological features of specific autoinflammatory syndromes and our approach (as adult neurologists) to their diagnosis.