Investigating Late-Onset Pompe Prevalence in Neuromuscular Medicine Academic Practices: The IPaNeMA Study

Background and Objectives

We investigated the prevalence of late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) in patients presenting to 13 academic, tertiary neuromuscular practices in the United States and Canada.


All successive patients presenting with proximal muscle weakness or isolated hyperCKemia and/or neck muscle weakness to these 13 centers were invited to participate in the study. Whole blood was tested for acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) assay through the fluorometric method, and all cases with enzyme levels of ≤10 pmoL/punch/h were reflexed to molecular testing for mutations in the GAA gene. Clinical and demographic information was abstracted from their clinical visit and, along with study data, entered into a purpose-built REDCap database, and analyzed at the University of California, Irvine.


GAA enzyme assay results were available on 906 of the 921 participants who consented for the study. LOPD was confirmed in 9 participants (1% prevalence). Another 9 (1%) were determined to have pseudodeficiency of GAA, whereas 19 (1.9%) were found to be heterozygous for a pathogenic GAA mutation (carriers). Of the definite LOPD participants, 8 (89%) were Caucasian and were heterozygous for the common leaky (IVS1) splice site mutation in the GAA gene (c -32-13T>G), with a second mutation that was previously confirmed to be pathogenic.


The prevalence of LOPD in undiagnosed patients meeting the criteria of proximal muscle weakness, high creatine kinase, and/or neck weakness in academic, tertiary neuromuscular practices in the United States and Canada is estimated to be 1%, with an equal prevalence rate of pseudodeficiency alleles.

Trial Registration Information

Clinical trial registration number: NCT02838368.

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