Prognostic relationship of neurofilaments, CHIT1, YKL-40 and MCP-1 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the progressive loss of motor neurons in the brain, the brainstem and the spinal cord.1 This results in progressive muscle weakness and wasting. A repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common genetic cause of ALS and frontotemporal dementia, at least in European populations.2 Biomarkers that capture various aspects of the disease are emerging and are becoming an important read-out in clinical studies. Neurofilaments (Nfs) both in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood have shown to reflect the extent of motor neuron degeneration and to predict survival in patients with ALS (pALS).3 Yet, Nfs do not capture the entire spectrum of the pathology in ALS. Indeed, inflammation is another prominent pathological hallmark in ALS.4 Inflammation, featured by glial cell activation and activation of other cells of the innate and adaptive immune…

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