The prognosis of late‐onset anti‐N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate receptor encephalitis in China

Objectives

Early-onset anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARE) differs from late-onset anti-NMDARE regarding clinical characteristics. Until recently, research focusing on prognosis of elder adults has been scarce and showed inconsistent results. This study aims to evaluate the prognosis of late-onset anti-NMDARE in China.

Materials & Methods

One hundred and twelve adults diagnosed as anti-NMDARE in four hospitals in China were reviewed retrospectively. Outcome data were assessed using modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score in short term (3 months after discharge) and long term (≥12 months after discharge). The relapse rate was also computed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate whether there are substantial differences in functional outcomes and recurrence rate across two groups.

Results

Of the 112 patients with anti-NMDARE, 81 (72.3%) were early-onset disease and 31 (27.7%) were late-onset disease. Of these, all had short-term follow-up and 70 completed long-term follow-up. Late-onset anti-NMDARE group showed better short-term (OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.09–6.71) and long-term prognoses (OR 10.25, 95% CI 1.90–55.15). Recurrence rates were statistically different between the groups (OR 4.25, 95% CI 1.22–14.75).

Conclusion

The prognosis for anti-NMDARE in China was poorer for older adults relative to younger adults. The relapse rates were higher in late-onset group compared to early-onset group.

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