Relapse factors of patients of anti‐N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate receptor encephalitis


The factors associated with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis relapse are yet to be elucidated.

Aims of the Study

To investigate the factors associated with relapse and prognosis of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.


This retrospective study included patients diagnosed with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2013 to October 2019. The clinical features, auxiliary examinations, treatment regimens, and follow-up were recorded. The outcomes were relapse and 2-year disease prognosis.


A total of 160 patients were included. Consequently, 6 (5%) deaths, 34 (25.4%) relapses, and 19 (15.2%) patients had a poor prognosis (modified Rankin score (mRS) ≥3) were recorded. The multivariable analyses showed that age (p = .011), abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (p = .019), glucocorticoid pulse (p = .009), and intracranial pressure (p = .023) were independently associated with the relapse, while age (p = .030) and central hypoventilation (p = .020) were independently associated with a poor prognosis at 2 years.


Glucocorticoid pulse therapy reduces the relapse of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Age, abnormal MRI, and intracranial pressure are risk factors for relapse, while age and central hypoventilation are independently associated with poor prognosis.

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