Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia Caused by 16p11.2 Microdeletion and Related Clinical Features

Background and Objectives

Isolated paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is mainly caused by PRRT2 variants and TMEM151A variants. Patients with proximal 16p11.2 microdeletion (16p11.2MD) (including PRRT2) often have neurodevelopmental phenotypes, whereas a few patients have PKD. Here, we aimed to identify 16p11.2MD in patients with PKD and describe the related phenotypes.


Whole-exome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of copy number variant (CNV) were performed in patients with PKD carrying neither PRRT2 nor TMEM151A variant. Quantitative PCR and low-coverage whole-genome sequencing verified the CNV.


We identified 9 sporadic patients with PKD and 16p11.2MD (~535 kb), accounting for 9.6% (9/94) of our patients. Together with 9 previously reported patients with PKD and 16p11.2MD, we found that 16p11.2MD was de novo in 11 of 12 tested patients and inherited from a parent in the other patient. And 80% (12/15) of these patients had a mild language delay, 64.3% (9/14) had compromised learning ability, 42.9% (6/14) had a mild motor delay, and 50% (6/12) had abnormal neuroimaging findings. No severe autism disorders were observed.


Mild developmental problems may be overlooked. A detailed inquiry of developmental history and CNV testing are necessary to distinguish patients with 16p11.2MD from isolated PKD.

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