Background and Objectives
Pompe disease is a rare, progressive neuromuscular disorder caused by deficiency of lysosomal acid α-glucosidase (GAA) and subsequent glycogen accumulation. Avalglucosidase alfa, a recombinant human GAA enzyme replacement therapy designed for increased cellular uptake and glycogen clearance, has been studied for long-term efficacy and safety in patients with late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD). Here, we report up to 6.5 years’ experience with avalglucosidase alfa during the NEO1 and NEO-EXT studies.
NEO1 participants with LOPD, either treatment naive (Naive Group) or receiving alglucosidase alfa for ≥9 months (Switch Group), received avalglucosidase alfa (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg every other week [qow]) for 6 months before entering NEO-EXT and continued their NEO1 dose until all proceeded with 20 mg/kg qow. Safety and efficacy, a prespecified exploratory secondary outcome, were assessed; slopes of change for efficacy outcomes were calculated from a repeated mixed-measures model.
Twenty-four participants enrolled in NEO1 (Naive Group, n = 10; Switch Group, n = 14); 21 completed and 19 entered NEO-EXT; in February 2020, 17 participants remained in NEO-EXT, with data up to 6.5 years. Avalglucosidase alfa was generally well tolerated during NEO-EXT, with a safety profile consistent with that in NEO1. No deaths or treatment-related life-threatening serious adverse events occurred. Eighteen participants developed antidrug antibodies without apparent effect on clinical outcomes. No participants who were tested developed immunoglobulin E antibodies. Upright forced vital capacity %predicted remained stable in most participants, with slope estimates (95% CIs) of –0.473 per year (–1.188 to 0.242) and –0.648 per year (–1.061 to –0.236) in the Naive and Switch Groups, respectively. Six-minute walk test (6MWT) %predicted was also stable for most participants, with slope estimates of –0.701 per year (–1.571 to 0.169) and –0.846 per year (–1.567 to –0.125) for the Naive and Switch Groups, respectively. Improvements in 6MWT distance were observed in most participants aged <45 years at NEO1 enrollment in both the Naive and Switch Groups.
Avalglucosidase alfa was generally well tolerated for up to 6.5 years in adult participants with LOPD either naive to alglucosidase alfa or who had previously received alglucosidase alfa for ≥9 months.
Classification of Evidence
This study provides Class IV evidence of long-term tolerability and sustained efficacy of avalglucosidase alfa in patients with LOPD after up to 6.5 years.
Trial Registration Information
NCT01898364 (NEO1 first posted: July 12, 2013; clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01898364); NCT02032524 (NEO-EXT first posted: January 10, 2014; clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02032524). First participant enrollment: NEO1—August 19, 2013; NEO-EXT—February 27, 2014.