December 4, 2023

Functional limb weakness (FLW), a common presentation of Functional Neurological Disorder (FND), poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians due to its complex nature and overlap with various neurological conditions. In this article, we delve into the intricacies of the neurological examination tailored to FLW and highlight some of the most common findings.


Functional limb weakness refers to a condition where a patient experiences weakness or paralysis in an arm or leg that cannot be attributed to a recognized organic neurological disorder. FLW falls under the broader umbrella of Functional Neurological Disorder (FND), a term used to describe a variety of symptoms of apparent neurological origin but which current clinical examination and investigation techniques cannot explain pathophysiologically.

The Importance of a Detailed Examination

A thorough neurological examination is crucial in identifying FLW, helping to distinguish it from organic causes of limb weakness, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis. This examination should be systematic, including a comprehensive assessment of motor, sensory, and reflex functions.

Common Findings in Functional Limb Weakness

1. Inconsistent Weakness

Inconsistency is a hallmark feature of FLW. The weakness tends to vary in severity and distribution, often not following known anatomical or neurophysiological patterns. For instance, a patient may exhibit a ‘give-way’ weakness, where the power abruptly decreases during a sustained muscle contraction, despite maximal effort.

2. Hoover’s Sign

Hoover’s sign is a useful clinical tool in detecting FLW. When a patient with suspected FLW is asked to lift the “weak” leg, they will not exert pressure with the opposite leg (as would be expected). However, if their attention is diverted, this pressure can often be felt, indicating that power is indeed present.

3. Normal Muscle Bulk and Tone

In contrast to organic causes of limb weakness, patients with FLW typically maintain normal muscle bulk and tone. The absence of muscle wasting or spasticity helps differentiate FLW from other neurological conditions.

4. Absence of Objective Neurological Signs

Patients with FLW lack objective neurological signs that indicate an organic disorder, such as pathologically brisk reflexes, abnormal plantar reflexes, or the presence of involuntary movements.


Functional Gait in Functional Limb Weakness

Functional gait disorders, often accompanying FLW, manifest as unusual walking patterns that are not explained by a known neurological or physical condition. These gait disturbances are diverse in presentation and can range from astasia-abasia (an inability to stand or walk in a normal manner despite having the capacity to move all limbs) to a dragging leg, sudden buckling of the knees, or a ‘walking on ice’ pattern.

Key Features of Functional Gait Disorders

  1. Inconsistency and Variability: Similar to functional limb weakness, the gait pattern in functional gait disorders can be variable and inconsistent. It may alter within a single examination or change over time. The gait can also improve when the patient is distracted or unaware of being observed.
  2. Bizarre and Non-anatomical Presentation: The gait patterns in functional gait disorders are typically bizarre and do not align with gait disturbances seen in known neurological conditions. For example, patients may exhibit a high-stepping ‘marching’ gait, a stuttering or ‘stuck’ start to walking, or excessive swaying.
  3. Preserved Balance: Despite the apparent gait disturbance, patients often exhibit preserved balance. For instance, they may perform well on tandem walking (heel-to-toe walking) or when walking backwards – tasks that would typically be difficult for individuals with an organic gait disorder.
  4. Positive Romberg’s Sign: While a positive Romberg’s sign (loss of balance when standing with feet together and eyes closed) typically suggests a deficit in proprioception, in functional gait disorders, it may be positive due to the patient’s belief or anticipation of imbalance.

Adding a functional gait examination to the neurological assessment aids in the comprehensive evaluation of patients with FLW. Recognizing the unusual and inconsistent features of a functional gait disorder, coupled with a detailed examination of limb weakness, can aid clinicians in diagnosing these challenging cases.


Functional limb weakness represents a complex interplay between neurology and psychiatry, necessitating a nuanced approach to diagnosis and management. A meticulous neurological examination remains the cornerstone in identifying these patients, guiding their treatment, and ensuring their optimal recovery. Understanding these examination findings enhances clinical acumen, improves diagnostic accuracy, and ultimately, fosters better patient outcomes.

Note: While these are common findings, each patient may present differently, and a comprehensive clinical evaluation is always essential. It is also important to approach patients with empathy and understanding, as stigma and misunderstanding often surround functional neurological symptoms.

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