September 25, 2023


Functional neurological disorder (FND) is a complex and challenging condition in which patients experience neurological symptoms without a conventional medical explanation. Due to the perplexing nature of the condition, experts in the field, such as neurologists, psychiatrists, and psychologists, are often called upon as expert witnesses in legal cases to help explain the intricacies of the disorder. The introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) into this sphere has the potential to revolutionize the role of these expert witnesses and how they approach FND cases.

Diagnosis Support

One area where AI can aid expert witnesses is in diagnosis support. FND is characterized by its broad range of symptoms, including movement and gait disorders, numbness, and non-epileptic seizures. Since these symptoms can be associated with various other conditions, differential diagnosis can be particularly challenging. Machine learning algorithms, a subset of AI, can analyze large data sets of symptoms and outcomes from past cases to predict the likelihood of FND in a new case. This prediction can serve as a valuable tool to assist expert witnesses in corroborating or challenging an FND diagnosis.

Neuroimaging Interpretation

AI can also support expert witnesses in interpreting neuroimaging. Neuroimaging in FND patients often does not show any structural brain abnormalities, which can complicate the diagnosis process. However, recent research suggests that FND may be linked to functional and structural abnormalities not readily visible in standard neuroimaging. Here, AI can be particularly helpful. Using advanced pattern recognition and machine learning techniques, AI can identify subtle changes in neuroimaging data that might be missed by the human eye, thereby assisting expert witnesses in substantiating their testimony.

Symptom Tracking and Analysis

Additionally, AI can assist with symptom tracking and analysis in FND patients. Wearable devices that collect patient data, such as movement patterns or biometric information, can feed this data into AI algorithms for analysis. AI can identify patterns and correlations in this data that can support the evaluation of symptom severity, progression, or response to treatment. This information can be pivotal for expert witnesses to provide a comprehensive and accurate picture of a patient’s condition over time.

Incident Report Analysis

AI can also analyze incident reports and other accident-related data. Using machine learning techniques, it could potentially highlight important correlations or patterns that might not be apparent at first glance. This could include details such as the intensity of the crash, the position of the victim in the vehicle, or other factors which may correlate with the onset of FND.

Prediction Models

Advanced AI models, trained on large datasets from previous cases, can help establish the likelihood of the accident causing FND. These models can take into account a wide variety of factors, including the nature of the accident, the patient’s medical history, and their symptoms, providing a probability estimate of the accident being a causal factor.

While AI can assist in the process of establishing causation in FND cases after a road traffic accident, it’s important to note that the results provided by AI tools should be considered in conjunction with other evidence, professional expertise, and the individual circumstances of each case. AI is a tool that can support and enhance the evaluation of complex clinical and legal scenarios, but it does not replace the need for expert human judgment and decision-making.

Enhancing Communication

AI technologies can also help expert witnesses to better communicate complex neurological information to non-specialist audiences, such as juries or judges. Natural language processing (NLP), a branch of AI that focuses on understanding, interpreting, and generating human language, can translate technical medical jargon into understandable language. Such tools can help expert witnesses present their findings in a manner that is more comprehensible to a lay audience, thereby improving the quality of their testimony.

Training and Simulation

Finally, AI can play a significant role in the training and preparation of expert witnesses. AI-driven simulation platforms can present users with a variety of potential case scenarios, allowing expert witnesses to practice their testimonies and receive AI-driven feedback on their effectiveness. This could prove particularly useful in complex FND cases, where the expert witness’s ability to communicate complex medical information clearly and persuasively can significantly impact the case outcome.


While AI cannot replace the essential human elements of expert witness work, such as empathy, judgment, and ethical considerations, it can act as a powerful tool to support these experts in their roles. As AI technology continues to evolve and become more integrated into the medical and legal professions, its potential to improve the quality and effectiveness of expert witness testimony in FND cases is vast and exciting. The future of expert witnessing in FND cases will undoubtedly be shaped by these technological advances, driving forward both the quality of the justice system and the understanding of this complex disorder.

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