Toll-Like Receptor 4 and High-Mobility Group Box-1 Are Involved in Ictogenesis and Can Be Targeted to Reduce Seizures. Maroso M, Balosso S, Ravizza T, Liu J, Aronica E, Iyer AM, Rossetti C, Molteni M, Casalgrandi M, Manfredi AA, Bianchi ME, Vezzani A.
Metabolic Autocrine Regulation of Neurons Involves Cooperation Among Pannexin Hemichannels, Adenosine Receptors, and KATP Channels. Kawamura M, Jr., Ruskin DN, Masino SA. J Neurosci 2010;30(11):3886–3895. Metabolic perturbations that decrease or limit blood glucose—such as fasting or adhering to a ketogenic diet—reduce epileptic seizures significantly.
In 2008, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning that any and all antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) might increase the risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Considerable confusion and concern followed regarding the use of these drugs, in general, and specifically for people with epilepsy.
Seizure Remission and Relapse in Adults with Intractable Epilepsy: A Cohort Study. Choi H, Heiman G, Pandis D, Cantero J, Resor SR, Gilliam FG, Hauser WA. Epilepsia 2008;49(8):1440–1445. PURPOSE: To investigate the cumulative probabilities of ≥12 month seizure remission and seizure relapse following remission, and to test the associations of clinical characteristics with these two study end points in a prevalence cohort of intractable adult epilepsy patients during medical management.
While studying the brain function of the human partial epilepsy gene, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), a new mechanism of human epileptogenesis was revealed—persistent immaturity of glutamatergic circuitries. LGI1, a novel secreted protein, was found to be increased during the postnatal period; when glutamatergic synapses both downregulate their presynaptic vesicular release probability and reduce their postsynaptic NMDA-receptor subunit NR2B.
Endogenous Neurosteroid Synthesis Modulates Seizure Frequency. Lawrence C, Martin BS, Sun C, Williamson J, Kapur J. Ann Neurol 2010;67(5):689–693. Inhibitory neurosteroids, molecules generated in glia from circulating steroid hormones and de novo from cholesterol, keep seizures in check in epileptic animals.