An exploration of the spectrum of peri-ictal MRI change; a comprehensive literature review

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The first descriptions of focal peri-ictal hyperperfusion is from the 1930’s by Gibbs [1] and Penfield [2]. In the 1960’s a study utilizing pneumoencephalograms noted that focal ictal activity in one hemisphere could result in ipsilateral cerebral oedema with subsequent cerebral atrophy and ventricular dilation [3]. With the ensuing availability of clinical computed tomography (CT) transient CT findings associated with seizure activity were reported in 1987 [4]. Following the introduction of MRI into mainstream clinical practice, clinicians have gained unprecedented insights into the dynamic nature of seizures prompting a wealth of case reports, case series, cohort studies and published reviews.

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