Computational alignment of duplex immunohistochemically-stained muscle sections in support of therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy


Continuous expression of utrophin protein by a utrophin modulator could be a disease modifying treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients regardless of their dystrophin mutation. At least 3 biomarkers (a fibre identification biomarker, a regeneration biomarker, and utrophin biomarker) are needed to separate utrophin expression resulting from therapeutic intervention with a utrophin modulator from the pathophysiologic utrophin expression associated with muscle fibre regeneration. Technical challenges of multiplex assay development and analytical validation for 3 or more biomarkers limit the utility of such assays in clinical trials.


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