Caffeine and PD–Time to consider other interventions


Multiple studies have consistently linked the use of caffeine, an adenosine antagonist, to a lower risk of Parkinson disease (PD). The combined relative risk in a recent meta-analysis was 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58, 0.76).1 The mechanism for this robust finding is unclear. Although a neuroprotective effect is possible,2,3 there are other explanations, including reverse causality (prodromal PD reduces tolerability, benefit, or desire for caffeine), symptomatic benefit (caffeine treats motor symptoms, so delays diagnosis), or residual confounding by another factor (e.g., the Parkinson personality or changes in reward mechanisms).


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