Systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma: a case of spontaneous regression of intramedullary spinal cord, cerebral, and cutaneous lesions


Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, Ahead of Print.
Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a rare disease that belongs to the non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses. It presents a wide clinical spectrum, usually occurs before 5 years of age, and is commonly confined to the skin; however, it can affect multiple sites, including the nervous system, and can lead to severe disorders. Although JXG is a benign disease that usually regresses spontaneously, several curative treatments have been proposed in cases of organ involvement. Treatment options include corticosteroids, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy; however, these can have severe, long-term adverse effects in children.The authors here describe the first case of spontaneous resolution of an intramedullary spinal cord lesion of JXG associated with cerebral and cutaneous lesions in a young boy with 9 years of follow-up. The initial neurological symptoms resolved without any surgical or medical treatment. This case shows that extracutaneous lesions of JXG, including those with intramedullary spinal cord involvement, can regress without curative treatment—like cutaneous lesions—although both multidisciplinary care and close follow-up should be implemented.

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