Multilevel, ultra-large-volume epidural blood patch for the treatment of neurocognitive decline associated with spontaneous intracranial hypotension: case report
Journal of Neurosurgery, Ahead of Print.
Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a progressive clinical syndrome characterized by orthostatic headaches, nausea, emesis, and occasionally focal neurological deficits. Rarely, SIH is associated with neurocognitive changes. An epidural blood patch (EBP) is commonly used to treat SIH when conservative measures are inadequate, although some patients require multiple EBP procedures or do not respond at all. Recently, the use of a large-volume (LV) EBP has been described to treat occult leak sites in treatment-refractory SIH. This article describes the management of a patient with profound neurocognitive decline associated with SIH, who was refractory to conservative management and multiple interventions. The authors describe the successful use of an ultra-LV-EBP of 120 ml across multiple levels, the largest volume reported in the literature, and describe the technical aspects of the procedure. This procedure has resulted in dramatic and sustained symptom resolution.