Refractory spasms of focal onset—A potentially curable disease that should lead to rapid surgical evaluation


Infantile spasms (IS) are defined as brief axial contraction, lasting less than two seconds, recurring in short clusters [1]; they can be considered as focal or generalized seizures [2]. The onset is often in infancy but sometimes later in life. They are often associated with severe encephalopathy and hypsarrythmia (West syndrome) but do not necessarily indicate generalized epilepsy since they can occur as the only seizure type in surgically curable focal and hemispheric epilepsies [3,4,5] or be associated with other types of partial seizures [6,7].


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