Influence of catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression on in-hospital opioid consumption, pain, and quality of recovery after adult spine surgery
Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, Ahead of Print.
OBJECTIVEPerception of perioperative pain is influenced by various psychological factors. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression on in-hospital opioid consumption, pain scores, and quality of recovery in adults who underwent spine surgery.METHODSPatients undergoing spine surgery were enrolled in this study, and the preoperatively completed questionnaires included the verbal rating scale (VRS), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Quality of recovery was assessed using the 40-item Quality of Recovery questionnaire (QoR40). Opioid consumption and pain scores according to the VRS were recorded daily until discharge.RESULTSOne hundred thirty-nine patients were recruited for the study, and 101 completed the QoR40 assessment postoperatively. Patients with higher catastrophizing scores were more likely to have higher maximum pain scores postoperatively (estimate: 0.03, SE: 0.01, p = 0.02), without increased opioid use (estimate: 0.44, SE: 0.27, p = 0.11). Preoperative anxiety (estimate: 1.18, SE: 0.65, p = 0.07) and depression scores (estimate: 1.06, SE: 0.71, p = 0.14) did not correlate with increased postoperative opioid use; however, patients with higher preoperative depression scores had lower quality of recovery after surgery (estimate: −1.9, SE: 0.56, p < 0.001).CONCLUSIONSCatastrophizing, anxiety, and depression play important roles in modulating postoperative pain. Preoperative evaluation of these factors, utilizing a validated tool, helps to identify patients at risk. This might allow for earlier psychological intervention that could reduce pain severity and improve the quality of recovery.