Serum glucose/potassium ratio as a clinical risk factor for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage


Journal of Neurosurgery, Ahead of Print.
OBJECTIVEAneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can result in poor outcomes, and biomarkers for predicting poor prognosis have not yet been established. The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of the serum glucose/potassium ratio for predicting the prognosis of aneurysmal SAH.METHODSThe authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 565 patients with aneurysmal SAH between 2006 and 2016. The patient group comprised 208 men and 357 women (mean age 61.5 years, range 10–95 years). A statistical analysis was conducted of the clinical and laboratory risk factors of poor outcome, including the serum glucose/potassium ratio.RESULTSOn estimation of the initial assessment using Hunt and Kosnik (H-K) grading, 233 patients (41.2%) were classified as the severe SAH group (H-K Grade IV or V). There were significant correlations between the severe SAH group and serum glucose/potassium ratio (p < 0.0001). Serum glucose/potassium ratio was elevated in an H-K grade–dependent manner (Spearman’s r = 0.5374, p < 0.0001). With the estimation of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score at discharge, 355 patients (62.8%) were classified as poor outcome (GOS score 1–3). The serum glucose/potassium ratio was elevated in a GOS score at discharge–dependent manner (Spearman’s r = 0.4006, p < 0.0001), and was significantly elevated in the poor outcome group compared with the good outcome group (GOS score 4 or 5; p = 0.0245). There were significant correlations between poor outcome and serum glucose/potassium ratio (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), brain natriuretic peptide levels (p = 0.011), cerebral infarction due to vasospasm (p < 0.0001), and H-K grade (p < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed significant correlations between poor outcome and serum glucose/potassium ratio (p = 0.009).CONCLUSIONSIn this study, the serum glucose/potassium ratio of patients with aneurysmal SAH at admission was significantly correlated with H-K grade and GOS score at discharge. Therefore, this ratio was useful for predicting prognosis of aneurysmal SAH, especially in severe cases.

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