A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, dose-finding study of condoliase in patients with lumbar disc herniation
Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, Ahead of Print.
OBJECTIVEChemonucleolysis with condoliase has the potential to be a new, less invasive therapeutic option for patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). The aim of the present study was to determine the most suitable therapeutic dose of condoliase.METHODSPatients between 20 and 70 years of age with unilateral leg pain, positive findings on the straight leg raise test, and LDH were recruited. All eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive condoliase (1.25, 2.5, or 5 U) or placebo. The primary end point was a change in the worst leg pain from preadministration (baseline) to week 13. The secondary end points were changes from baseline in the following items: worst back pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), SF-36, and neurological examination. For pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses, plasma condoliase concentrations and serum keratan sulfate concentrations were measured. The safety end points were adverse events (AEs) and radiographic and MRI parameters. Data on leg pain, back pain, abnormal neurological findings, and imaging parameters were collected until week 52.RESULTSA total of 194 patients received an injection of condoliase or placebo. The mean change in worst leg pain from baseline to week 13 was −31.7 mm (placebo), −46.7 mm (1.25 U), −41.1 mm (2.5 U), and −47.6 mm (5 U). The differences were significant at week 13 in the 1.25-U group (−14.9 mm; 95% CI −28.4 to −1.4 mm; p = 0.03) and 5-U group (−15.9 mm; 95% CI −29.0 to −2.7 mm; p = 0.01) compared with the placebo group. The dose-response improvement in the worst leg pain at week 13 was not significant (p = 0.14). The decrease in the worst leg pain in all 3 condoliase groups was observed from week 1 through week 52. Regarding the other end points, the worst back pain and results of the straight leg raise test, ODI, and SF-36 showed a tendency for sustained improvement in each of the condoliase groups until week 52. In all patients at all time points, plasma condoliase concentrations were below the detectable limit (< 100 μU/ml). Serum keratan sulfate concentrations significantly increased from baseline to 6 hours and 6 weeks after administration in all 3 condoliase groups. No patient died or developed anaphylaxis or neurological sequelae. Five serious AEs occurred in 5 patients (3 patients in the condoliase groups and 2 patients in the placebo group), resolved, and were considered unrelated to the investigational drug. Severe AEs occurred in 10 patients in the condoliase groups and resolved or improved. In the condoliase groups, back pain was the most frequent AE. Modic type 1 change and decrease in disc height were frequent imaging findings. Dose-response relationships were observed for the incidence of adverse drug reactions and decrease in disc height.CONCLUSIONSCondoliase significantly improved clinical symptoms in patients with LDH and was well tolerated. While all 3 doses had similar efficacy, the incidence of adverse drug reactions and decrease in disc height were dose dependent, thereby suggesting that 1.25 U would be the recommended clinical dose of condoliase.Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00634946 (clinicaltrials.gov)