Incidental durotomy in the pediatric spine population
Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, Ahead of Print.
OBJECTIVESpine surgery is less common in children than adults. These surgeries, like all others, are subject to complications such as bleeding, infection, and CSF leak. The rate of incidental durotomy in the pediatric population, and its associated complications, has scarcely been reported in the literature.METHODSThis is a retrospective chart review of all pediatric patients operated on at Wake Forest Baptist Health from 2012 to 2017 who underwent spine surgeries. The authors excluded any procedures with intended durotomy, such as tethered cord release or spinal cord tumor resection.RESULTSFrom 2012 to 2017, 318 pediatric patients underwent surgery for a variety of indications, including adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (51.9%), neuromuscular scoliosis (27.4%), thoracolumbar fracture (2.83%), and other non–fusion-related indications (3.77%). Of these patients, the average age was 14.1 years, and 71.0% were female. There were 6 total incidental durotomies, resulting in an overall incidence of 1.9%. The incidence was 18.5% in revision operations, compared to 0.34% for index surgeries. Comparison of the revision cohort to the durotomy cohort revealed a trend toward increased length of stay, operative time, and blood loss; however, the trends were not statistically significant. The pedicle probe was implicated in 3 cases and the exact cause was not ascertained in the remaining 3 cases. The 3 durotomies caused by pedicle probe were treated with bone wax; 1 was treated with dry Gelfoam application and 2 were treated with primary repair. Only 1 patient had a persistent leak postoperatively that eventually required wound revision.CONCLUSIONSIncidental durotomy is an uncommon occurrence in the pediatric spinal surgery population. The majority occurred during placement of pedicle screws, and they were easily treated with bone wax at the time of surgery. Awareness of the incidence, predisposing factors, and treatment options is important in preventing complications and disability.