Peripheral nervous system involvement in lymphomas

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The peripheral nervous system may be involved at any stage in the course of lymphoproliferative diseases. The different underlying mechanisms include neurotoxicity secondary to chemotherapy, direct nerve infiltration (neurolymphomatosis), infections, immune‐mediated, paraneoplastic or metabolic processes and nutritional deficiencies. Accordingly, the clinical features are heterogeneous and depend on the localization of the damage (ganglia, roots, plexi, peripheral nerves) and on the involved structures (myelin, axon, cell body). Some clinical findings, such a focal or diffuse involvement, symmetric or asymmetric pattern, presence of pain may point to the correct diagnosis. Besides a thorough medical history and neurological examination, neurophysiological studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, nerve biopsy (in selected patients with suspected lymphomatous infiltration) and neuroimaging techniques (Magnetic resonance neurography and nerve ultrasound) may be crucial for a proper diagnostic work‐up.

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