Predictors of seizure reduction outcome after vagus nerve stimulation in drug-resistant epilepsy

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About 30–40% of epilepsy patients whose seizures cannot be controlled with two well-tolerated, appropriately chosen, and used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are considered to have drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) [1]. Even with adequate access to surgical treatment and further AEDs trials, 61.1% of patients with DRE have ongoing seizures [2]. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as adjunct therapy to reduce the frequency of seizures in adults with DRE [3].

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