A rational, multispectral mapping algorithm for primary motor cortex: A primary step before cortical stimulation

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Summary

Objective

For future artificial intelligence–based brain mapping, development of a rational and safe scoring system for a brain motor mapping algorithm using electrocorticography (ECoG score), which contains various spectral, purely intrinsic brain activities, is necessary for either before or in the absence of electrical cortical stimulation (ECS).

Methods

We evaluated 1114 electrodes of 10 consecutive focal epilepsy patients who underwent subdural electrode implantation before epilepsy surgery at Kyoto University Hospital during 2011‐2017. Data from ECoG‐based mapping (bandpass filter of 0.016‐300/600 Hz) to define the primary motor area (M1) localization were used to create an ECoG score (range = 0‐4) by assigning 1 point each for the occurrence of ECoG components: very slow movement‐related cortical potentials (<0.5‐1.0 Hz), event‐related synchronization (76‐100 Hz or 100‐200 Hz), and event‐related desynchronization (8‐12 Hz or 12‐24 Hz). The ECoG score was assessed by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, and cutoff values of the score for localization concordance with M1 defined using only ECS as a reference.

Results

With an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.76, cutoffs of scores of 4 and 1 showed high specificity (94%) and sensitivity (98%) in concordance with ECS‐based mapping, respectively. The ECoG score for mapping M1 of the upper limb achieved greater accuracy (AUC = 0.85) compared to that of the face (AUC = 0.64).

Significance

The ECoG score proposed in the present study is rational, simple, and useful to define M1, and it is spatially concordant with ECS. Although ECS is still widely employed for presurgical examination, our proposed application of the ECoG score may be suitable for future brain M1 mapping, and possibly beyond M1 mapping, independently of ECS.

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