Pediatric-onset psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: a retrospective international multicenter study


Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) have a propensity to start at young ages (i.e., adolescence and young adulthood), although the seizures can begin at any age [1–5]. Clinical characteristics and predisposing risk factors of patients with PNES differ from those with epilepsy and also from healthy individuals [6,7]. More intriguingly, some clinical characteristics and risk factors of PNES ( e.g., a history of abuse) may differ in those with early-onset PNES compared with that in patients with adult-onset disorder [2,8].


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