Immune Alterations Following Neurological Disorders: A Comparison of Stroke and Seizures
Background: Granulocytes and monocytes are the first cells to invade the brain post stroke and are also being discussed as important cells in early neuroinflammation after seizures. We aimed at understanding disease specific and common pathways of brain-immune-endocrine-interactions and compared immune alterations induced by stroke and seizures. Therefore, we compared granulocytic and monocytic subtypes between diseases and investigated inflammatory mediators. We additionally investigated if seizure type determines immunologic alterations.
Material and Methods: We included 31 patients with acute seizures, 17 with acute stroke and two control cohorts. Immune cells were characterized by flow cytometry from blood samples obtained on admission to the hospital and the following morning. (i) Monocytes subpopulations were defined as classical (CD14++CD16−), (ii) intermediate (CD14++CD16+), and (iii) non-classical monocytes (CD14dimCD16+), while granulocyte subsets were characterized as (i) “classical granulocytes” (CD16++CD62L+), (ii) pro-inflammatory (CD16dimCD62L+), and (iii) anti-inflammatory granulocytes (CD16++CD62L−). Stroke patient’s blood was additionally drawn on days 3 and 5. Cerebrospinal fluid mitochondrial DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. Plasma High-Mobility-Group-Protein-B1, metanephrine, and normetanephrine were measured by ELISA.
Results: HLA-DR expression on monocytes and their subpopulations (classical, intermediate, and non-classical monocytes) was reduced after stroke or seizures. Expression of CD32 was increased on monocytes and subtypes in epilepsy patients, partly similar to stroke. CD32 and CD11b regulation on granulocytes and subpopulations (classical, anti-inflammatory, pro-inflammatory granulocytes) was more pronounced after stroke compared to seizures. On admission, normetanephrine was upregulated in seizures, arguing for the sympathetic nervous system as inducer of immune alterations similar to stroke. Compared to partial seizures, immunologic changes were more pronounced in generalized tonic-clonic seizures.
Conclusion: Seizures lead to immune alterations within the immediate postictal period similar but not identical to stroke. The type of seizures determines the extent of immune alterations.Read More...