Applications of Resting-State fNIRS in the Developing Brain: A Review From the Connectome Perspective

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Early brain development from infancy through childhood is closely related to the development of cognition and behavior in later life. Human brain connectome is a novel framework for describing topological organization of the developing brain. Resting-state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), with a natural scanning environment, low cost, and high portability, is considered as an emerging imaging technique and has shown valuable potential in exploring brain network architecture and its changes during the development. Here, we review the recent advances involving typical and atypical development of the brain connectome from neonates to children using resting-state fNIRS imaging. This review highlights that the combination of brain connectome and resting-state fNIRS imaging offers a promising framework for understanding human brain development.

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