Comparison of the neurocognitive outcomes in term infants treated with levetiracetam and phenobarbital monotherapy for neonatal clinical seizures

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Treatment of neonatal seizures with a proper antiepileptic drug remains a significant clinical problem in medicine [1–3]. There are few evidence-based guidelines for the evaluation and management of neonatal seizures. Available guidelines indicate that phenobarbital (PB) remains the first-line treatment for neonatal seizures [4,5]. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the second-line antiepileptic drugs, such as levetiracetam (LEV), benzodiazepine, fosphenytoin, or lidocaine [6–8]. In the last decade, case series and clinical studies have suggested LEV as a first-line antiepileptic drug in neonatal seizures because of its good pharmacokinetics and having an acceptable side effect profile [9–20].

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