Patterns and predictors of opioid use among migraine patients at emergency departments: A retrospective database analysis

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Cephalalgia, Ahead of Print.
ObjectivesTo compare medication use and health resource utilization between migraineurs with evidence of opioid use at emergency department visit versus no opioid use at emergency department visit, and to examine predictors of opioid use among migraineurs at emergency department visits.MethodsThis was a retrospective study using REACHnet electronic health records (December 2013 to April 2017) from Baylor Scott & White Health Plan. The index date was defined as the first migraine-related emergency department visit after ≥6 months of enrollment. Adult patients with a migraine diagnosis and ≥6 months of continuous enrollment before and after their index dates were included. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to compare medication use and health resource utilization between opioid users and non-opioid users. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine predictors of opioid use at emergency department visits.ResultsA total of 788 migraineurs met eligibility criteria. Over one-third (n = 283, 35.9%) received ≥1 opioid medication during their index date emergency department visit. Morphine (n = 103, 13.1%) and hydromorphone (n = 85, 10.8%) were the most frequently used opioids. Opioid users had more hospitalizations and emergency department visits during their pre-index period (both p < 0.05). Significant (p < 0.05) predictors of opioid use at emergency department visits included past migraine-related opioid use (2–4 prescriptions, Odds Ratio = 1.66; 5–9 prescriptions, Odds Ratio = 2.12; ≥10 prescriptions, Odds Ratio = 4.43), past non-migraine-related opioid use (≥10 prescriptions, Odds Ratio = 1.93), past emergency department visits (1–3 visits, Odds Ratio = 1.84), age (45–64 years, Odds Ratio = 1.45), and sleep disorder (Odds Ratio = 1.43), controlling for covariates. ConclusionOpioids were commonly given to migraineurs at emergency departments. Previous opioid use, health resource utilization, age, and specific comorbidities might be used to identify migraineurs with a high risk of opioid use.

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