Expiratory Dysfunction in Young Dogs with Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy

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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disease that affects approximately 1 in 4000-6000 boys, making it the most common form of muscular dystrophy [1]. Mutations in the DMD gene cause loss of the protein dystrophin, which normally buttresses the muscle cell membrane. Resulting membrane instability leads to repeated cycles of skeletal and cardiac myofiber necrosis and regeneration, with muscle being replaced over time by connective tissue and fat [2]. Muscles required for ventilation are severely affected, with marked changes in the diaphragm [3].

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