Paroxysmal Cranial Dyskinesia and Nail‐Patella Syndrome Caused by a Novel Variant in the LMX1B Gene

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ABSTRACT

Background

In a Danish family, multiple individuals in five generations present with early‐onset paroxysmal cranial dyskinesia, musculoskeletal abnormalities, and kidney dysfunction.

Objective

To demonstrate linkage and to identify the underlying genetic cause of disease.

Methods

Genome‐wide single‐nucleotide polymorphisms analysis, Sequence‐Tagged‐Site marker analyses, exome sequencing, and Sanger sequencing were performed.

Results

Linkage analyses identified a candidate locus on chromosome 9. Exome sequencing revealed a novel variant in LMX1B present in all affected individuals, logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of z = 6.54, predicted to be damaging. Nail‐patella syndrome (NPS) is caused by pathogenic variants in LMX1B encoding a transcription factor essential to cytoskeletal and kidney growth and dopaminergic and serotonergic network development. NPS is characterized by abnormal musculoskeletal features and kidney dysfunction. Movement disorders have not previously been associated with NPS.

Conclusions

Paroxysmal dyskinesia is a heretofore unrecognized feature of the NPS spectrum. The pathogenic mechanism might relate to aberrant dopaminergic circuits. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society

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