Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Risk Factors Unique to Perimenopausal Women

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Many investigations have found common occurrences of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in women, and clinical experience has shown that BPPV can develop due to increased hormonal fluctuations, especially during menopause. Therefore, knowledge about neurochemicals and their involvement with BPPV is imperative for the management of neurological issues in women. This review will discuss appropriate gender-based considerations of BPPV based on experimental and clinical evidence. The studies describe 2 lines of evidence regarding the association of perimenopause in women and the development of BPPV: (1) experimental evidence: the existence of estrogen receptors in the inner ear, otoconial malformations in osteopenic/osteoporotic rats, changes in otoconin 90 caused by hormone replacement therapy, and impaired calcium absorption following estrogen deprivation corrected by estrogen replacement therapy and (2) clinical evidence: epidemiological aspects, osteoporosis and estrogen deficiency. Future studies are necessary to validate the effects of hormonal replacement therapy and phytoestrogen in women with recurrent BPPV.

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