Use of Unconventional Therapies in Super-refractory Status Epilepticus: A Case Report and Literature Review
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Ahead of Print.
Super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) is a life-threatening condition characterized by the persistence or recurrence of seizures despite the use of first- and second-line antiepileptic drugs and the continuous infusion of anesthetics for more than 24 hours. This has always been a challenge for the physician, given the high mortality and morbidity related to this condition. Unfortunately, there are currently no definitive data to guide the therapy, since most of the therapeutic approaches regarding SRSE come from anecdotal evidence. Here, we present a case report of long-persisting new-onset SRSE treated with unconventional therapies recently reported to be successful such as ketamine, ketogenic diet, and tocilizumab, that could have played an important role in the management of this patient. A review of the literature regarding those is also included. SRSE has been reported to have long hospital length of stay, with a small percentage of patients returning to baseline functional status. Moreover, recent evidence showed that functional and cognitive outcome could depend on seizure duration, so prolonged duration of epileptic activity with abnormalities on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be seen as a reason to discontinue treatment. However, despite many weeks of seizures and a noncomforting MRI, our patient was discharged with a good functional status.