Inflamm-Aging and Brain Insulin Resistance: New Insights and Role of Life-style Strategies on Cognitive and Social Determinants in Aging and Neurodegeneration
Over the past decades, the human life span has dramatically increased, and therefore, a steady increase in diseases associated with age (such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease) is expected. In these neurodegenerative diseases, there is a cognitive decline and memory loss, which accompany increased systemic inflammation, the inflamm-aging, and the insulin resistance. Despite numerous studies of age-related pathologies, data on the contribution of brain insulin resistance and innate immunity components to aging are insufficient. Recently, much research has been focused on the consequences of nutrients and adiposity- and nutrient-related signals in brain aging and cognitive decline. Moreover, given the role of metainflammation in neurodegeneration, lifestyle interventions such as calorie restriction may be an effective way to break the vicious cycle of metainflammation and have a role in social behavior. The various effects of calorie restriction on metainflammation, insulin resistance, and neurodegeneration have been described. Less attention has been paid to the social determinants of aging and the possible mechanism by which calorie restriction might influence social behavior. The purpose of this review is to discuss current knowledge in the interdisciplinary field of geroscience—immunosenescence, inflamm-aging, and metainflammation—which makes a significant contribution to aging. A substantial part of the review is devoted to frontiers in the brain insulin resistance in relation to neuroinflammation. In addition, we summarize new data on potential mechanisms of calorie restriction that influence as a lifestyle intervention on the social brain. This knowledge can be used to initiate successful aging and slow the onset of neurodegenerative diseases.