Epilepsy

Premysl Jiruska, Catalina Alvarado-Rojas, Catherine A. Schevon, Richard Staba, William Stacey, Fabrice Wendling, Massimo Avoli September 3, 2017

Summary

High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are a type of brain activity that is recorded from brain regions capable of generating seizures. Because of the close association of HFOs with epileptogenic tissue and ictogenesis, understanding their cellular and network mechanisms could provide valuable information about the organization of epileptogenic networks and how seizures emerge from the abnormal activity of these networks.

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Felix Podewils, Marie Suesse, Julia Geithner, Bernadette Gaida, Zhong I. Wang, Julia Lange, Alexander Dressel, Matthias Grothe, Christof Kessler, Soenke Langner, Uwe Runge, Christian G. Bien September 3, 2017

Summary

Objective

The increasing incidence of new-onset seizures with age is well known. Often, the etiology cannot be clarified. In the present study, patients with unprovoked late-onset seizures and without known neoplasm, who might have had paraneoplastic encephalitis, were investigated for a potentially underlying autoimmunity.

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Jon D. Duke, Patrick B. Ryan, Marc A. Suchard, George Hripcsak, Peng Jin, Christian Reich, Marie-Sophie Schwalm, Yuriy Khoma, Yonghui Wu, Hua Xu, Nigam H. Shah, Juan M. Banda, Martijn J. Schuemie September 3, 2017

Summary

Recent adverse event reports have raised the question of increased angioedema risk associated with exposure to levetiracetam. To help address this question, the Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics research network conducted a retrospective observational new-user cohort study of seizure patients exposed to levetiracetam (n = 276,665) across 10 databases.

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Anna Mira Loesch, Hannah Steger, Claudia Losher, Elisabeth Hartl, Jan Rémi, Christian Vollmar, Soheyl Noachtar September 3, 2017

Summary

Objective

To investigate the occurrence of ictal and postictal aphasia in different focal epilepsy syndromes.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed the video-electroencephalographic monitoring data of 1,118 patients with focal epilepsy for seizure-associated aphasia (SAA). Statistical analysis included chi-square analysis and Fisher’s exact test.

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Birgit Frauscher, Fabrice Bartolomei, Katsuhiro Kobayashi, Jan Cimbalnik, Maryse A. Klooster, Stefan Rampp, Hiroshi Otsubo, Yvonne Höller, Joyce Y. Wu, Eishi Asano, Jerome Engel, Philippe Kahane, Julia Jacobs, Jean Gotman September 3, 2017

Summary

Modern electroencephalographic (EEG) technology contributed to the appreciation that the EEG signal outside the classical Berger frequency band contains important information. In epilepsy, research of the past decade focused particularly on interictal high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) 80 Hz. The first large application of HFOs was in the context of epilepsy surgery.

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Bertrand Mathon, Franck Bielle, Séverine Samson, Odile Plaisant, Sophie Dupont, Anne Bertrand, Richard Miles, Vi-Huong Nguyen-Michel, Virginie Lambrecq, Ana Laura Calderon-Garcidueñas, Charles Duyckaerts, Alexandre Carpentier, Michel Baulac, Philippe Cornu, Claude Adam, Stéphane Clemenceau, Vincent Navarro September 3, 2017

Summary

Objective

The reasons for failure of surgical treatment for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) remain unclear. This retrospective study analyzed seizure, cognitive, and psychiatric outcomes, searching for factors associated with seizure relapse or cognitive and psychiatric deterioration after MTLE-HS surgery.

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Diede W. M. Broekaart, Jackelien Scheppingen, Karlijne W. Geijtenbeek, Mark R. J. Zuidberg, Jasper J. Anink, Johannes C. Baayen, Angelika Mühlebner, Eleonora Aronica, Jan A. Gorter, Erwin A. Vliet September 3, 2017

Summary

Objective

Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway reduces epileptogenesis in various epilepsy models, possibly by inhibition of inflammatory processes, which may include the proteasome system. To study the role of mTOR inhibition in the regulation of the proteasome system, we investigated (immuno)proteasome expression during epileptogenesis, as well as the effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin.

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Aziza Khabbush, Michael Orford, Yi-Chen Tsai, Tricia Rutherford, Maura O'Donnell, Simon Eaton, Simon J. R. Heales September 3, 2017

Summary

Objective

The medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet contains both octanoic (C8) and decanoic (C10) acids. The diet is an effective treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Although the exact mechanism for its efficacy is not known, it is emerging that C10, but not C8, interacts with targets that can explain antiseizure effects, for example, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (eliciting mitochondrial biogenesis and increased antioxidant status) and the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor.

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Adam Strzelczyk, Sonja Ansorge, Jana Hapfelmeier, Vijayveer Bonthapally, M. Haim Erder, Felix Rosenow September 3, 2017

Summary

Objective

Super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) is a severe condition in which a patient in status epilepticus (SE) for ≥24 h does not respond to first-, second-, or third-line therapy. The economic impact of SRSE treatment remains unclear. A health insurance research database was used for a population-based estimation of SRSE-associated inpatient costs, length of stay, and mortality in Germany.

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