Epilepsy

Helen C. Wu, Fabien Dachet, Farhad Ghoddoussi, Shruti Bagla, Darren Fuerst, Jeffrey A. Stanley, Matthew P. Galloway, Jeffrey A. Loeb September 3, 2017

Summary

Objective

This study aimed to identify noninvasive biomarkers of human epilepsy that can reliably detect and localize epileptic brain regions. Having noninvasive biomarkers would greatly enhance patient diagnosis, patient monitoring, and novel therapy development. At the present time, only surgically invasive, direct brain recordings are capable of detecting these regions with precision, which severely limits the pace and scope of both clinical management and research progress in epilepsy.

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Véronique Latreille, Myriam Abdennadher, Barbara A. Dworetzky, Judith Ramel, David White, Eliot Katz, Marcin Zarowski, Sanjeev Kothare, Milena Pavlova September 3, 2017

Summary

Patients with epilepsy have 20-fold risk of sudden death when compared to the general population. Uncontrolled seizures is the most consistent risk factor, and death often occurs at night or in relation to sleep. We examined seizure-related respiratory disturbances in sleep versus wakefulness, focusing on periictal oxygen saturation.

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Shijie Liu, Yu Shen, Sandy R. Shultz, Anne Nguyen, Christopher Hovens, Paul A. Adlard, Ashley I. Bush, Jianxiong Chan, Patrick Kwan, Terence J. O'Brien, Nigel C. Jones September 3, 2017

Summary

The biologic processes underlying epileptogenesis following a brain insult are not fully understood, but several lines of evidence suggest that hyperphosphorylation of tau may be an important factor in these processes. To provide further insight into the causal relationship between tau and epileptogenesis, this study applied amygdala kindling to rTg4510 mice that, concurrent with other pathologies, overexpress phosphorylated tau, tau knockout mice, or their respective wild-type controls.

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Masaki Sonoda, Hiroshi Masuda, Hiroshi Shirozu, Yosuke Ito, Kohei Akazawa, Eishi Asano, Shigeki Kameyama September 3, 2017

Summary

Objective

To determine the predictors of cognitive function in patients with drug-resistant gelastic seizures (GS) related to hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) before and after stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation surgery (SRT).

Methods

We studied 88 patients with HH who underwent SRT between October 1997 and December 2014.

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Gavin P. Winston, Sjoerd B. Vos, Jane L. Burdett, M. Jorge Cardoso, Sebastien Ourselin, John S. Duncan September 3, 2017

Summary

Objective

Hippocampal sclerosis (HS), the most common cause of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, is associated with hippocampal volume loss and increased T2 signal. These can be identified on quantitative imaging with hippocampal volumetry and T2 relaxometry. Although hippocampal segmentation for volumetry has been automated, T2 relaxometry currently involves subjective and time-consuming manual delineation of regions of interest.

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Megan N. Huizenga, Evan Wicker, Veronica C. Beck, Patrick A. Forcelli September 3, 2017

Summary

Objective

Although drugs targeting the cannabinoid system (e.g., CB1 receptor agonists) display anticonvulsant efficacy in adult animal models of seizures/epilepsy, they remain unexplored in developing animal models. However, cannabinoid system functions emerge early in development, providing a rationale for targeting this system in neonates.

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Muhammad Tariqus Salam, Gaspard Montandon, Roman Genov, Orrin Devinsky, Martin Del Campo, Peter L. Carlen September 3, 2017

Summary

Objective

Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy is the leading cause of death in young adult epilepsy patients, typically occurring during the early postictal period, presumably resulting from brainstem and cardiorespiratory dysfunction. We hypothesized that ictal discharges in the brainstem disrupt the cardiorespiratory network, causing mortality.

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Michele C. Jackson, Saba Jafarpour, Jacquelyn Klehm, Sigride Thome-Souza, Francesca Coughlin, Kush Kapur, Tobias Loddenkemper September 3, 2017

Summary

Objective

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of vigabatrin in pediatric epilepsy.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed patients with epilepsy treated with vigabatrin over a 2-year period at a pediatric tertiary center. We assessed the relationship between seizure frequency, etiology, vigabatrin dose, adverse events, medication discontinuation reasons, and electroencephalography (EEG) characteristics.

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Edward Faught, François Laliberté, Zhixiao Wang, Victoria Barghout, Batool Haider, Dominique Lejeune, Guillaume Germain, Jiyoon Choi, Aneesha Wagh, Mei Sheng Duh September 3, 2017

Summary

Objective

The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in health care resource utilization following the initiation of perampanel for the treatment of epilepsy in the United States.

Methods

Health care claims from Symphony Health’s Integrated Dataverse database between December 2012 and November 2015 were analyzed.

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