Older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are known to cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). However, evidence for newer AED is sparse. We quantified risks of SJS/TEN in association with use of all AEDs in the United Kingdom.
In a matched case-control study of 480 previously validated SJS/TEN cases (1995–2013) we used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and calculated absolute risks of SJS/TEN within separate cohorts of new users of 28 AEDs.
Epilepsy is one of the most prominent symptoms of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a genetic disorder, and may be related to developmental defects resulting from impaired TSC1 or TSC2 gene function in astrocytes and neurons. Inactivation of the Tsc1 gene driven by a glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter during embryonic brain development leads to widespread pathologic effects on astrocytes and neurons, culminating in severe, progressive epilepsy in mice (Tsc1GFAP-Cre mice).
Medically refractory epilepsy is a debilitating disorder that is particularly challenging to treat in patients who have already failed a surgical resection. Evidence regarding outcomes of further epilepsy surgery is limited to small case series and reviews. Therefore, our group performed the first quantitative meta-analysis of the literature from the past 30 years to assess for rates and predictors of successful reoperations.
Epilepsy being one of the most prevalent neurological disorders, affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide, and with almost 30–40% of patients experiencing partial epilepsy being nonresponsive to medication, epilepsy surgery is widely accepted as an effective therapeutic option. Presurgical evaluation has advanced significantly using noninvasive techniques based on video monitoring, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological and neuropsychological tests; however, certain clinical settings call for invasive intracranial recordings such as stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG), aiming to accurately map the eloquent brain networks involved during a seizure.
Cognitive difficulties are common in epilepsy. Beyond reducing seizures and adjusting antiepileptic medications, no well-validated treatment exists in adults. Methylphenidate is used effectively in children with epilepsy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but its effects in adults have not been systematically evaluated.