General Neurology

Hirokazu Kurahashi, Yoshiteru Azuma, Akio Masuda, Tatsuya Okuno, Eri Nakahara, Takuji Imamura, Makiko Saitoh, Masashi Mizuguchi, Toshiaki Shimizu, Kinji Ohno, Akihisa Okumura December 19, 2017

ABSTRACT

Objective

Reversible myelin vacuolization is associated with variable conditions including mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS), which is characterized by mildly impaired consciousness and transient splenial lesion. Familial and/or recurrent cases with a clinical diagnosis of MERS suggest the presence of genetic factors.

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Jin Woo Chang, Chang Kyu Park, Nir Lipsman, Michael L. Schwartz, Pejman Ghanouni, Jaimie M Henderson, Ryder Gwinn, Jennifer Witt, Travis S. Tierney, G. Rees Cosgrove, Binit B. Shah, Keiichi Abe, Takaomi Taira, Andres M. Lozano, Howard M. Eisenberg, Paul S. Fishman, W. Jeffrey Elias December 19, 2017

Abstract

Objective: Magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) has recently been investigated as a new treatment modality for essential tremor (ET), but the durability of the procedure has not yet been evaluated. This study reports results at a 2- year follow-up after MRgFUS thalamotomy for ET.

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Kivilcim Kilic, Hulya Karatas, Buket Donmez-Demir, Emine Eren-Kocak, Yasemin Gursoy-Ozdemir, Alp Can, Jean-Marie Petit, Pierre J. Magistretti, Turgay Dalkara December 15, 2017

ABSTRACT

Objective: Glycogen in astrocyte endfeet contributes to maintenance of low extracellular glutamate and K+ concentrations around synapses. Sleep deprivation (SD), a common migraine trigger induces transcriptional changes in astrocytes reducing glycogen breakdown. We hypothesize that when glycogen utilization cannot match synaptic energy demand, extracellular K+ can rise to levels that activate neuronal pannexin-1 channels and downstream inflammatory pathway, which might be one of the mechanisms initiating migraine headaches.

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Patricia A. Boyle, Lei Yu, Robert S. Wilson, Sue E. Leurgans, Julie A. Schneider, David A. Bennett December 15, 2017

Abstract

Objective: Mixed neuropathologies are the most common cause of dementia at the population level, but how different neuropathologies contribute to cognitive decline at the individual level remains unknown. We quantified the contribution of nine neuropathologies to cognitive loss at an individual level.

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Nicolas Roehri, Francesca Pizzo, Stanislas Lagarde, Isabelle Lambert, Anca Nica, Aileen McGonigal, Bernard Giusiano, Fabrice Bartolomei, Christian-George Bénar December 15, 2017

Abstract

Objective: High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in intracerebral EEG (stereoelectroencephalography, SEEG) are considered as better biomarkers of epileptogenic tissues than spikes. How this can be applied at the patient level remains poorly understood. We investigated how well the HFOs and the spikes can predict epileptogenic regions with a large spatial sampling at the patient level.

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Dalila G. Ordonez, Michael K. Lee, Mel B. Feany December 14, 2017

The synaptic protein α-synuclein has been strongly implicated in neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease and related disorders. Using a new Drosophila α-synucleinopathy model, Ordonez et al. show that α-synuclein interacts with spectrin to destabilize the actin cytoskeleton and induce mitochondrial dysfunction.

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Maureen E. Stabio, Shai Sabbah, Lauren E. Quattrochi, Marissa C. Ilardi, P. Michelle Fogerson, Megan L. Leyrer, Jordan M. Renna, Min Tae Kim, Inkyu Kim, Matthew Schiel, Kevin L. Briggman, David M. Berson December 14, 2017

Stabio et al. describe a novel type of output neuron of mouse retina that exhibits both direct, melanopsin-based photosensitivity and center-surround chromatic opponency generated by amacrine-cell inhibition. Their signals are routed toward visual cortex, where they may support color perception.

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