General Neurology

Siraj K. Zahr, Guang Yang, Hilal Kazan, Michael J. Borrett, Scott A. Yuzwa, Anastassia Voronova, David R. Kaplan, Freda D. Miller January 31, 2018

Zahr et al. show that cortical RPs are transcriptionally primed to generate diverse neuronal subtypes and that translational repression mechanisms determine which transcription factor mRNAs are translated to ensure appropriate temporal specification of daughter neurons.

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Xiaomin Yue, Jian Zhao, Xiao Li, Yuedan Fan, Duo Duan, Xiaoyan Zhang, Wenjuan Zou, Yi Sheng, Ting Zhang, Qian Yang, Jianhong Luo, Shumin Duan, Rui Xiao, Lijun Kang January 31, 2018

Mutations in TMC cause deafness in mammals with an elusive mechanism. In this report, Yue et al. found that C. elegans TMC promotes egg laying through maintaining rhythmic calcium activity. Mechanistically, TMC proteins modulate resting membrane potential via a background leak conductance.… Read More...

Huriye Atilgan, Stephen M. Town, Katherine C. Wood, Gareth P. Jones, Ross K. Maddox, Adrian K.C. Lee, Jennifer K. Bizley January 26, 2018

Atilgan et al. demonstrate that temporal coherence between auditory and visual stimuli shapes the representation of a sound scene in auditory cortex. Auditory cortex is identified as a site of multisensory binding, with inputs from visual cortex underpinning these effects.

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Stephen D. Ginsberg, Melissa J. Alldred, Satya M. Gunnam, Consuelo Schiroli, Sang Han Lee, Susan Morgello, Tracy Fischer January 25, 2018

ABSTRACT

Objective: CD16+/CD163+ macrophages (MΦ)s and microglia accumulate in the brains of patients with HIV encephalitis (HIVE), a neuropathological correlate of the most severe form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), HIV-associated dementia (HIV-D). Recently, we found that some parenchymal microglia in brain of HIV+ subjects without encephalitis (HIV/noE) but with varying degrees of neurocognitive impairment express CD16 and CD163, even in the absence of detectable virus production.

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Eleonora Cavalca, Martina Cesani, Jennifer Gifford, Miguel Sena Esteves, Maria Rosa Terreni, Giuseppe Leoncini, Marco Peviani, Alessandra Biffi January 25, 2018

ABSTRACT

Objective: Lysosomal Storage Disorders (LSDs) are a broad class of inherited metabolic diseases caused by the defective activity of lysosomal enzymes. Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations are present in roughly 50% of LSD patients and represent an unmet medical need for them.

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Yuan Dong, Julien Lagarde, Laura Xicota, Hélène Corne, Yannick Chantran, Thomas Chaigneau, Bruno Crestani, Michel Bottlaender, Marie-Claude Potier, Pierre Aucouturier, Guillaume Dorothée, Marie Sarazin, Carole Elbim January 25, 2018

Abstract

Objective: Recent studies have underlined the effect of systemic inflammation on the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Neutrophils are key components of early innate immunity and contribute to uncontrolled systemic inflammation if not tightly regulated. The aim of our study was to fully characterize human circulating neutrophils at different disease stages in Alzheimer’s disease.

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Katharina Gruntz, Marlene Bloechliger, Claudia Becker, Susan S Jick, Peter Fuhr, Christoph R Meier, Stephan Rüegg January 25, 2018

ABSTRACT

Objective

To assess the association between incident Parkinson’s disease (PD) and subsequent incident epileptic seizures.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective cohort study with a nested case-control analysis using data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We identified patients aged ≥40 years with an incident diagnosis of PD between 1995 and 2016 and a matched comparison group of PD-free individuals.

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Zhen Ni, Sang Jin Kim, Nicolas Phielipp, Soumya Ghosh, Kaviraja Udupa, Carolyn A. Gunraj, Utpal Saha, Mojgan Hodaie, Suneil K. Kalia, Andres M. Lozano, Darrin J. Lee, Elena Moro, Alfonso Fasano, Mark Hallett, Anthony E. Lang, Robert Chen January 25, 2018

Abstract

Objective: Internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) relieves symptoms in dystonia patients. However, the physiological effects produced by GPi DBS are not fully understood. In particular, how a single-pulse GPi DBS changes cortical circuits has never been investigated.

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Wookjin Yang, Chi Kyung Kim, Do Yeon Kim, Han-Gil Jeong, Seung-Hoon Lee January 25, 2018

ABSTRACT

Objective: Although gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is generally regarded as an alternative biomarker for alcohol consumption, its independent role in vascular diseases emerged recently. However, its role in stroke remains unknown. The aim of this study is to clarify the impact of GGT on stroke in a large-sized, national, standardized population cohort in Korea.

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